The guitars period of flourishing arrived later in northern Europe than elsewhere. Only after the old lute fully disappeared from musical life(Note 60) did the guitar become popular in the North, a popularity which lasted from 1820 to about the middle of the nineteenth century. In Denmark the 1820s represented the pinnacle of the guitars popularity, which Niels Gade relates in his autobiography: Den Gang var Guitar, Fløjte og til Dels Harpe de af Dilettanter mest yndede Instrumenter. Herrer og Damer sang sværmeriske og sentimentale Romanzer af Rudolf Bay, Plantade o.s.v. till Accompagnement af Guitarren, som hang i et lyseblaat Baand om Skulderensåledes var Moden i Begyndelsen af Tyverne. Min Fader havde et vist Ry for at forfærdige velklingende og veludseende Guitarer efter spansk Façon, og hans Handel var den Gang meget indbringende. Senere fortrængtes Guitaren af Pianofortet. [At that time the guitar, flute and to an extent, the harp were the most favoured instruments of the dilettantes. Ladies and gentlemen would sing dreamy and sentimental romances by Rudolph Bay, Plantade, etc. to the accompaniment of the guitar, which hung on a light blue ribbon over the shouldersuch was the fashion or mode in the beginning of the 20s. My father had a certain skill in making good sounding and good looking guitars after the Spanish fashion, and at that time, his enterprise was very profitable. Later the guitar was replaced by the pianoforte.] Niels Gade and A. P. Berggreen are often cited in non-Scandinavian handbooks as the main representatives for the guitar in Denmark (see for example Encyclopédie de la Musique, 2e partie, p. 2010). Also Zuth, following Bone, mentions Berggreen as a composer for the guitar, and Gade as a good guitar player. With reference to Gade, however, his activities as a guitarist should have been extremely unimportant. No compositions for the guitar by Gade are known, and his playing seems to have been confined to his early years: when he was 6 years old he received a small childs guitar which he played skilfully, but which was soon replaced by the violin. It is quite a different matter with Berggreen. Already in his school years he composed a sonatina for flute and guitar, and his Trois thêmes variés pour la guitare date from 1825. By 1824 his skill as a guitar player had reached such a level that he could declare himself a teacher of the instrument. Even his earliest songs seemed to have been composed with the guitar in mind, as Skou declares in his biography of Berggren: den smeltende skjønne De tvende Dugdraaber (1818) der endnu langt in i Trediverne Jævnlig og altid med Bevægelse blev sunget i Familiekredse til Ledsagelse af Guitaren. Det kjendtes i det Hele paa disse Ungdomsarbejder, at de ere tænkte og følte ved Guitarren, dette Datidens Yndlingsinstrument, som C. M. v. Weber saa betegnende kalder die freundliche Begleiterin des Gesanges. Med dette var Berggreen fortrolig fra Skoletiden, og det fulgte ham till Regensen, hvor han ofte glædede Kammeraterne med sit Spil. At dette ikke er blevet glemt af Ungdomsvennerne, ses bl.a. af et Brev fra Dr. Theol. W. Rothe, der endnu i 1869 titulerer ham: Kjære Professor Berggreen! Fordum Guitarspiler paa RegensenSavnet af Klaveret ellerom man vilForkjærligheden for Guitaren har sat kjændelige Spor i hans Romancekompositioner, og det ikke blot i de tidligste. [the meltingly beautiful The Two Dewdrops (1818) that far into the 30s was often sung, always with feeling, in the family circle to the accompaniment of the guitar. It seems in general that these youthful works were thought and felt with the guitar, that periods most beloved instrument, which C. M. v. Weber so accurately calls the friendly companion of songs. These were things that Berggreen knew well from his schooldays, and which followed him to Regensen where he often delighted his friends with his playing. That this was not forgotten by the friends of his youth can be seen in e. g. a letter from Dr. Theol., W. Rothe, who still in 1869 addresses him. Dear Professor Berggren! Former Guitar Player at Regensen... the lack of a pianoor if you willthe preference for the guitar has left obvious traces in his romance compositions and this is the case not only in his earliest ones]. Otherwise, Berggreen arranged a great many songs for the guitar: Kapriciosa: Yndede Sange [Beloved Songs]; Fr. Kuhlau, Elverhøi: Sange; Studenternes Lykönsknings Sang [The Students Congratulation Song]komponeret af H. E. Krøyer, arrangeret for Guitarre af A. P. Berggreen; To Sange af Operaen Postillonen i Lonjumeau, etc. Concerning Danish guitarists, Zuth mentions in addition to Berggreen and Gade, Peder Schall, Henrik and Frederik Rung, as well as the recent Italian-born, but working in Copenhagen, guitarist, Alberto Bracony. Concerning Peder Schall we could add that one chapter, pp. 303-310 is devoted to him in Thrane: Fra Hofviolonernes Tid in which his guitar playing and his højst originale Humoresker [highly original humoresques] for the guitar are mentioned. Henrik Rung had early devoted himself to the guitar, and trained himself to be a virtuoso on the instrument. Amongst his many song compositions about 50 have guitar as well as piano accompanimnents. Rungs Op. 1-4 for solo guitar are entered in Zuth; Op 2 and 3, but with inexact titles. They should be: Op 2 Deux polonaises; Op 3 Petites leçons progressives. We can add two pieces for 3 guitars: 2 Guitar-Terzetter. His son, Frederik Rung had by 1866 (he was born in 1854) already performed as a guitar and mandolin player. Those named in Zuth as Albumsblate" should be Albumsblade. Alberto Bracony is presumed by Zuth as to be identical with pseudonym A. Alberto, who produced a small guitar and lute method in Leipzig in 1912 according to Zuth. We have Albertos method in a Swedish translation, which however was published by Benjamin in Hamburg. Zuth lists only the works of Bracony which were published in Germany. However, when he was working in Copenhagen, Bracony published through Skandinavisk Musikforlag Guitarspillerens første Sange [The Guitarists First Songs] (2 issues), Op. 11, and pieces for the mandolin. Amongst the older Danish composers who wrote for guitar and who are omitted by Zuth, I would mention Philip Ludvig Keck. He was born in Hannover (1790), but spent most of his life in Denmark where he died in 1848. He composed: Six Pieces pour Flûte et Guitarre, composées par P. L. Keck Membre de la Chapelle Royale. Propriété de lÉditeur. Copenhague chez C. C. Lose. Keck was an especially skilful oboist and as such employed in the Kongelige Kapel in Copenhagen (1816-45). He has also composed pieces for 2 flutes. It seems strange that the Danish music dictionaries leave out his name, since he wrote music for several of Bournonvilles ballets (Faust, Soldat og Bonde; Victors Bryllup) as well as for Lorchers Kærlighed på Landet. Guitar methods in Denmark, Bornhardts and Carullis in translation and also several by Danish guitarists are not mentioned in Zuth. The eldest of these later methods is P. Chr. Koch, Praktisk Sang- og Guitar-Skole for Folket [Practical Song and Guitar Method for the People], 2 issues, Copenhagen 1847. The guitar methods written by Adolph Julius Eggers (1859-1919) came from a later time, as do those by Poul Bredo Grandjean (b. 1880) and Albert F. Petersen (the fourth edition of his method is dated 1911). Eggers was amongst other things guitar teacher in Copenhagen and produced a great number of song collections with guitar accompaniment, duets for 2 guitars and 12 Spanske Danse og Melodier [12 Spanish Dances and Melodies] for mandolin and guitar.(Note 61) P. B. Grandjean has written guitar accompaniments to several collections of songs, occasionally together with Axel Grandjean. A. Peteren has also written Mandolin-Spillerens Underholdningsbog [The Mandolin Players Entertainment Book] of the year 1910 (for mandolin and guitar) and Guitarspillerens Underholdningsbog [The Guitar Players Entertainment Book] (for song and guitar). He has also produced methods for banjo and mandolin. Amongst other Danish composers who have written for guitar and whom Zuth has excluded, there are several we could mention. Rudolph Bay (1791-1856) wrote songs accompanied by guitar or piano. There is a manuscript in Aarhus Statsbibliotek [City Library] by Søffren Degen (died in 1885): Erindringer fra Danmark [Memories from Denmark], containing guitar pieces both with and without text, dated 1835-45; most of them seem to be his own compositions. In the collection Sept Morceaux for Guitar Solo from Wilhelm Hansens publishing house is the last composition by Degen: Pièce facile pour la Guitare. Frederik Wulff Carl Pedersen (1770-1854) published collections of music for guitar and voice. Wilhelm Matthison-Hansen (1870-1922) was in his later years a much sought-after teacher of guitar, and arranged songs for guitar, Chant national Béarnais for guitar, 4 mandolins and mandola (in 1905), and Chanson Arabe for 2 guitars, 4 mandolins and mandola (in 1905). By K. Knudsen there are arranged Guitar duetter" [Duets for Guitar] dedicated to the Guitarklubben Canto(Note 62) (Scandinavian Music Publishers), and Oluf A. T. Brøndberg has arranged Danske Melodier. Potpourri" [Danish Melodies, Potpourri] both for mandolin and guitar and for mandolin, guitar and piano. As in France, a great many songs from operas with accompaniment by guitar or piano were published in Denmark during the first half of the nineteenth century. C. C. Lose in Copenhagen published for example arrangements from Aubers Elskovsdrikken (Le Philtre) (7 nos.), Fra Diavolo (7 nos.) and Muurmesteren (Le Maçon) from Boieldieus Den hvide Dame (La Dame Blanche) and from Hérolds Zampa (8 nos.), Marschners Tempelherren og Jødinden [The Templer and the Jewess], (10 nos.). Also Danish composers are represented by songs with a similar accompaniment, as Ivar Bredal, from the operas Bruden fra Lammermoor [Bride of Lammermoor], (10 nos.), and Guerillabanden [The Guerilla Band], (10 nos..).(Note 63) (Note 64) Wilhelm Hansens publishing company in Copenhagen has produced Sex Melodier til Fredmanns Epistler af C. M. Bellman udsatte for Pianoforte og Guitarre, af L. P. S. Tellefsen, the Norwegian composer and organist in Odense (1813-67).(Note 65) Fryklund does not seem to have been aware of Thorvald Rischels (1861-1939) collection of guitar music in Denmark. There is no sign of a connection between them in Fryklunds archive. This seems rather odd as they lived not far from each other: Fryklund in Helsingborg and Rischel in Copenhagen. The Rischel and Birket-Smith collection is now housed in the Royal Library in Copenhagen and a catalogue on the holdings has been published by Editions Orphée. As I mentioned earlier a history of the guitar in Denmark by Erling Møldrup is under preparation. On the Gade-brothers see the interesting article by Dorthe Falcon Møller, Brødrene GadeDanske instrumentbyggere i første halvdel af det 19. århundrede (Dansk aarbog for musikforskning 7/1973-1976, pp. 192-212). Other Danish guitarmakers (not less than 19 have been identified) are described in Dorthe Falcon Møllers Danske Instrumentbyggere 1770-1850, Copenhagen 1983.
In his Handbuch Zuth has mentioned Sweden in fairly many places. He mentions several lutebooks which are in Swedish librariessuch as Per Brahes Visbok [Songbook] (Note 66) in Skoklosters library. Under the heading Ludovicus de Geer, it is stated that einen Lautenhandschr. in franz. Tabulatur verwahrt die Stadtbibl. in Norrköping [the city library of Norrköping has a lute manuscript in French tablature](Note 67) Following Eitner, Zuth mentions Anders Dübens 5 Menuetten in einer Tabulaturhandschrift und einen Marsch pour les Suédois in einem Lautenbuch der kgl. Bibl. zu Stockholm [5 Minuets, in tabulature manuscript, and one March pour les Suédois in a lute book from the Royal Library, Stockholm.(Note 68) Antonio Bartali has an entry, also after Eitner, as a composer: in Uppsala University Library there is 8 Sonaten zu 3-6 Stimmen für V4.,(Note 69) Viola d. G., Trombone, Viola da brazzo, Tiorba und Basso cont.. Amongst the Germans working in Stockholm, Zuth names David Kellner, carilloneur in the German Church in Stockholm and organist, who published XVI Auserlesene Lautenstücke. He mentions Jakob Kremberg, employed in the Swedish court orchestra in 1680, who wrote for the lute and guitar, Johann Gottlieb Naumannhimself a guitar playerfrom whom comes ein Arrangement in franz. Tabulatur für Harmonica mit Laute, and who inspired the guitar maker, Jakob August Otto in Weimar to add a 6th string to the Spanish guitars 5. However, Naumanns activities in Sweden are not indicated in Zuths survey of his life. Also Joseph Martin Kraus is mentioned, whose Op. 1 is a sonata for guitar and piano. According to Eitner, this composition should be found in the Bibliothek der Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna, but, according to information in the Sv. Tidskr. för Musikf., 1924, p. 92, it was stolen from there. About David Kellner, see further Kenneth Sparr, David Kellner: A Biographical Survey (The Lute 29/1989 pp. 3-36), reprinted in Balticuma Coherent Musical Landscape in 16th and eighteenth Centuries. Ed. by Irma Vierimaa. Studia musicologica universitatis helsingiensis VI. Helsinki 1994. pp. 63-90. A German version of the article is David Kellner: Ein biographischer Überblick Teil 1-3." (Gitarre & Laute 14/1992, Heft 6, pp. 13-18; 7/1993, Heft 1 pp. 17-21; Heft 2 pp. 17-21) and a Swedish version is David Kellnerlutenist, klockspelare och organist" (Gitarr och Luta 26/1993 nr 1 s. 3-13). About Kellners continuo treatise see Kenneth Sparr, En 250-årig Trogen Underrättelse Uti General=Basen... och dess författare David Kellner (Tidskrift för tidig musik 11/1989 nr 4 pp. 3-10) In Zuths Handbuch it is said that Karl Arnold, Cellist der kgl. Kapelle in Stockholm, according to Bone in The Guitar and Mandolin, had published compositions and arrangements for solo guitar. However Bones information is not exactly repeated by Zuth. Bone says in his work, p. 20, that one Charles Arnold, about whose life nothing is known, in London published several pieces for guitar, amongst others, Four Books of Melodies for guitar solo. Bone adds in this connection that one Charles Arnold, pianist and composer, visited St. Petersburg in 1820. Bone here refers to the pianist, Karl Arnold, whose son was a cellist in the Swedish court orchestra from 1851-67; thus it would seem generally unlikely that any of these Arnolds should have published the guitar compositions in London which are referred to by Bone. Of interest in Sweden is Zuths reference to Pietro Reggio, singer and lute player in Queen Christinas court orchestra in Rome (Note 70) and to the Swede Magnus Olson, who was reputed to be a teacher in Salt Lake City of the German-American guitarist, C. D. Schettler (Zuth, p. 245), and also to the German guitar players Adam Darr, who played concerts also throughout Sweden, and Heinrich Albert, who prior to his guitar period, had played in an orchestra in amongst other countries Sweden. Zuth devotes a long article to Bellman (Zuth spells it Bellmann), with information about the literature on Bellman in German, and also Sven Scholander is heralded as the first to equip the old Swedish lute with guitar strings and guitar tuning (even his daughter Lisa is mentioned). Amongst Germans inspired by Scholander to concert singing with guitar accompaniment, Clara Brat is mentioned. The old, highly skilled Swedish lutemakers are given a great deal of attention, not least thanks to the attention given by von Lütgendorff to Hedvig Boivies study: Några svenska lut- och fiolmakare under 1700-talet [Some Swedish Lute and Violin Makers of the eighteenth Century] in his monumental work: Die Geigen- und Lautenmacher. Thus in Zuth we find the lute makers Sven Beckman (not Swend Beckmann), Jonas Elg, Göran Garman, Johan Jerner (not Johann), Pehr Kraft, (not Per), Pehr Lundborg and Lars Mollenberg. (Note 71)
Of the instruments in Swedish collections which were made by foreign instrument makers, the lute by Mest in Füssen and now in Linköpings Library is named. The year of construction —1707has quite rightly been questioned. Zuth has taken his information about Mest from von Lütgendorffs work, and von Lütgendorff, having referred to the present authors essay, "Bidrag till kännedomen om viola damore, [Contributions to the Knowledge of the Viola damore] pp. 13, 14, has been the victim of a printing error: in our essay we have the year 1633! Also referred to is a lute by Jakob Heinrich Goldt in Musikmuseet in Stockholm, and a lute by Peter Hellmer in Hammers collection in Stockholm, which as we know, was sold in Cologne in 1893. (Note 72) Otherwise, on p. 294 Zuth mentions the neuschwedische Lauten and on p. 272, die neuschwedische Theorbe". On the lute by Raphael Mest see Kenneth Sparr. Raphael Mests luta (Linköpings biblioteks handlingar Ny serie band 10, 1984, pp. 4-23)
As the above attests, there is a great deal in Zuth which is of interest as regards the lute and guitar in Sweden. However, we must also assert that there is still a great deal one could add.
The lute was developed in Sweden mainly during the sixteenth century, and a bit into the sebenteenth century, (Note 73) it was developed within the very highest social classes, including royalty: both Gustav Vasa and Erik XIV were capable lute players. In the Swedish court orchestra several lutenists were employed, amongst them, from the time of Gustav Vasa, were Jeronimus from Italy, (there were in fact two with that name), Nicolaus Hoffmann from Danzig, Baltzar Hoffmann, Cornelius Hoffmann and Casper Hoffmann, and Bertil Larsson, who was presumably Swedish. Later there were Jören Vogel (1560) and Renatus de Plessi (1572-73), the latter probably French. Even during the Great Power Period there were a few lutenists in the court orchestra, e. g. Samuel Reimich, the Italian Johan Battista, Frans Behr, Bischow, the Frenchmen Pichon and Betune. The last three belonged to the period of Queen Christina, after which no more lutenists appear in the court orchestra. Betune, who was a member of the court orchestra between 1649-50 can hardly have been the same as the Bethune working in Denmark, who in 1702 received 50 Rd as teacher of King Fredrik IV; however he could very well be the same as the Bethune le cadet mentioned by Zuth, who lived just at that time (cf. Zuth, p. 38). (Note 74) On the early lute history in Sweden see Kenneth Sparr, Lutan i Sverigetiden intill 1520 (SGLS 16/1983 nr 2 s. 26-37). A later period is dealt with in the same authors "Lutenists at the Royal Court of King Gustavus I of Sweden (The Lute XXV Part 2, 1985, s. 69-80), in a Dutch version Luitisten aan het hof van koning Gustavus I van Zweden (De Tabulatuur 6/1989 nr 23 s. 8-14) and in a Swedish version Lutan i Sverige - tiden 1520-1560 (SGLS 19/1986 nr 1 s. 18-36). See also Kenneth Sparr, French Lutenists and French Lutemusic in Sweden (Le luth et sa musique II, Paris 1984 pp. 59-67) and other articles by the same author. On the many lutenists employed at the Swedish court during the Great Power Period see Erik Kjellberg, Kungliga musiker i Sverige under stormaktstiden, Vol. 1-2. Uppsala 1979. On the lutenist Hinrich Niewerth see Kenneth Sparr, Hinrich NiewerthLutenist at the Royal Swedish Court (The Lute XXIV Part 2, 1984, pp. 69-75)
In 1652 when the Italian opera troupe was established in Stockholm under the direction of Vincenzo Albrici (who in 1654 among other things wrote a sinfonia for 3 violins, viola, basso, theorbo, spinet, harpsichord and organo for the Swedish Court, (Note 75) there was in the troupe a sonatore di tiorba, who according to Norlind and Trobäck, Kungl. Hovkapellets historia, p. 265, was called Angiot Michele Bartolettidoubtless the same as the Angiolo Michele Bartolotti, who, according to Zuth, published a Libro 1-4 di Chitarra spagnuola in Florence in 1640.
There were also lutenists in Magnus Gabriel de la Gardies music troupe. When de la Gardie was governor general in Livonia in 1655, an unnamed lutenist was on the pay roll. In Kägleholms accounts for 1661 there is an entry for the lutenist Duall, and in the court accounts from 1680 there is a lutenist, not named. We can add here in this connection that an inventory of Riksarkivet has revealed that in the music gallery at Läckö castle was a case containing several instruments, including an angelic"; cf. Emil Trobäck, Magnus Gabriel de la Gardies Hovkapell 1645-1686 (Sv. Tidskrift för Musikforskning 1930, pp. 74-84). (Note 76) On the lutenist and singer Israel Pourell employed by Magnus Gabriel de la Gardie, see Kenneth Sparr, Israel Pourelllutenist och musikant i stormaktstidens Stockholm. (Gitarr och Luta 25/1992 nr 2 pp. 49-57)
Lutenists also performed at a later date in Sweden. Christian Ludwig Kuhlau, flutist and kettledrummer in the court orchestra also performed lute solos at concerts in Stockholm, 9th April and 8th October, 1769 (Note 77) and both lute and guitar were played at the concerts given by three Italians in Stockholm during the summer of 1798, Fr. Giordani, L. Inverardi, and J. Folchini: Divertissement med Viola inglese, Luta och Cittra [Divertissement with English violet, lute and citra]. Divertissement för Viola inglese, Luta och Guitarro [Divertissement for Viola inglese, Lute and Guitar]. Giordani played the English violet and the other two, who were actually singers, played the above-mentioned and other instruments as well as the mandolin. (Note 78) (Note 79) (Note 80) On lutenists in Sweden during the eighteenth century see also Robert Eklunds paper, UUB 20:13. A Contextual Study of a Lute Manuscript. Stockholms universitet 1991. On Zaneboni mentioned in the footnote see James Tyler and Paul Sparks, The Early Mandolin, Oxford 1989. However, neither Lovise Esio or Carrenso are mentioned in this book.
In the foregoing we have mentioned the great popularity of the guitar in Scandinavia from the 1820s to the middle of the century. The guitar however seems to have gained its popularity in Sweden a bit later than in Denmark, partly because of Swedens geographical positionsomewhat cut off from music centresand partly because of the wide-spread use of the Kraft-lute in Sweden (an instrument which in certain ways was very like the guitar) during the end of the eighteenth century and beginning of the nineteenth. (Note 81) (Note 82) During the period when the guitar was flourishing, there were several eminent guitar players, composers and arrangers in Sweden, of whom hardly any are mentioned in Zuths Handbuch. The only Swedish guitarist with an entry in Zuth is P. E. Svedbom, who in Stockholm published "Lieder mit Klavier od. Gitarre. Zuth refers to Svedboms writing music for Runesvärdet. Förslag till Svensk Nationalsång. Ord af Rdd. Musik med accompagnement för Fortepiano eller Guitarre af [The Rune Sword. Proposal for a Swedish National Anthem. Words by Rdd. Music with accompaniment for Pianoforte or Guitar by] P. E. Svedbom, Stockholm. Cf. Eitner, and Fryklund, Musikbibliografiska anteckningar, p. 9. (Note 83)
Most of the composers for the guitar in Sweden were also guitar players. Some played the guitar at concerts, amongst whom the violinist in the court orchestra, Fredrik Wilhelm Hildebrand (1785-1830) was one of the first. One of the best known guitar players was Oscar Ahnfelt (1813-1882), who founded a guitar institute in Stockholm. Ahnfelt travelled about and preached in Sweden, Norway and Denmark, and at the end of his sermons, he performed songs and accompanied himself on the guitar. In his musical dictionary, Höijer says that Ahnfelt was an excellent guitar player, and as a guitar virtuoso he performed both in Stockholm and in the provinces, and that his playing showed skill, power and taste. Höijer remarks concerning his guitar, that it was constructed by Ahnfelt himself10 stringed, with two necks, and över den ena af dessa, som saknar gripbräde, löpa de 4 nytillkomna bassträngarna [over the one neck, which lacks fingerboard, the new bass strings extend]. Höijers information on the guitar constructed by Ahnfelt is repeated in Ahnfelts obituary in Svensk Musiktidning (1882, No. 22) and caused a protest in the same journal (No. 24) from the violin maker, O. F. Selling in Stockholm, who stated that he, Selling, had not only invented but also made Ahnfelts guitar. The instrument is now in Musikmuseet in Stockholm. The prominent violinist Johan Jakob Nagel (1807-1885), born in Moravia, in the court orchestra in Stockholm from 1830, was also famous as a guitar virtuoso, and Höijer also names, as another virtuoso, the bandmaster of the North Scania Infantry Regiment, G. Brandes (b. 1798). The poet Birger Sjöberg was a good guitar player and toured singing his songs, which he set to music himself, and accompanied himself on the guitar. Johan Isidor Dannström, in his youth, gave guitar lessons.
Concerning the above-mentioned guitar players work as composers for the guitar we would add: Hildebrand, who composed Six Polonaises pour Violon ou Flûte avec accompagnement de Pianoforte ou Guitarre; and Verschiedene Tänze und ein Marsch für die Guitarre. He arranged the following for the guitar: Fyra sånger ur Frithiofs Saga af [Four Songs from Fritjofs Saga, by] B. Crusellof which the first issue was followed by a second containing three songs. Hildebrand also arranged other compositions for the guitar and published Journal för Guitarre. Ahnfelt composed mainly religious songs with accompaniment. He published a song collection with the title Andeliga sånger med accompagnement af Pianoforte eller Guitarre, dels componerade dels samlade af [Sacred Songs, with Accompaniment for Pianoforte or Guitar Partly Composed, Partly Collected by] Oscar Ahnfelt. In his youth he is said to have arranged a polonaise by J. M. Rosén for 6 guitars. Amongst Nagels songs with accompaniment of guitar Nordmön i Söder. Romans Orden af Böttiger Satt i Musik för Sång med Guitarre och Dlle Jenny Lind tillegnad af [The Northern Maiden in the South: Romance, Words by Böttiger, Set to Music for Song with Guitar, Dedicated to Dlle Jenny Lind, by] J. Nagel, is the best known. He also composed: Serenade med accompagnement af Pianoforte eller Guitarre [Serenade, with Accompaniment for Pianoforte or Guitar], and Cecilia: Samling af lätta tonstycken för En och Två Guitarrer [Cecilia: Collection of Easy Music for One and Two Guitars]. He also published the 8th Swedish edition of Carullis guitar method (edited and expanded), with an appendix by Jean Nagel. The first song that J. I. Dannström published was Romance med accompagnement af pianoforte eller guitarre [Romance, with Accompaniment for Pianoforte or Guitar].
Amongst the older composers for the guitar we would name, in addition to the above, A. G. Dannström, who set music to: Kärlekens snaror. Orden af C. F. Dahlgren med Accompagnement för Guitarr och Piano af [Loves Traps, Words by C. F. Dahlgren, with Accompaniment for Guitar and Piano by] A. G. Dannström, Stockholm, 1838. Dannström was involved in the publishing of Polymnia. Samling af valda Sångstycken med Guitarre accompagnement arrangerade af [Polymnia, a Collection of Selected Songs, with Guitar Accompaniments, Arranged by] H. Neupert,(Note 84) and A. G. Dannström. Carl Erik Södling (1819-1884) produced Sånger med ett lätt accompagnement af Guitarre [Songs with Easy Accompaniment for Guitar]. O. Torp wrote Six Lændlers Pour la Guitar composés et dédiés à Madame Betty Wærn Par son Maître O. Torp. J. Boman composed music to Tegners poems: Musik till fyra dikter af Esaias Tegnér med accompagnement af Piano-Forte eller Guitarr, H. K. H. Kron Prinsessan Josephina Underdånigst tillägnad af [Music to Four Poems by Esaias Tegner, with Accompaniment for Pianoforte or Guitar, with Humble Dedication to Her Royal Highness Crown Princess Josephina, by] J. Boman. 2 editions. Sånger ur Frithiofs Saga med accompagnement för Guitarre Hans Konglig Höghet Joseph Frans Oscar underdånigst tillegnade af [Songs from Frithiofs Saga, with Accompaniment for Guitar, Humbly Dedicated to His Royal Highness, Joseph Frans Oscar, by] J. Boman. He also published: Åtta duetter för två guitarrer [Eight Duets for Two Guitars]; and Sångstycken med accompagnement för Guitarr eller Fortepiano arrangerade af [Songs with Accompaniment for Guitar or Pianoforte Arranged by] J. Boman. This J. Boman is not mentioned in the music handbooks. (Note 85) Also E. W. Brandes composed music for Tegners poems: Smärre dikter af Esaias Tegnér satte i Musik för Sång och Guitarre af [Minor Poems by Esaias Tegner, Set to Music for Song and Guitar, by] E. W. Brandes. Cf. G. Brandes above. Two musicians, born abroad, but who mainly worked in Sweden and composed for the guitar were Du Puy, who was born in Switzerland, and wrote a polonaise for two violins, guitar and bass, published by Kronberger in Prague; and the talented composer, Eduard Brendler, (1800-1831), born in Dresden, but by 1802 was working in Stockholm. He published Skaldestycken af Stagnelius satte i Musik för Sång och Guitarre af [Poems by Stagnelius, Set to Music for Song and Guitar by] Eduard Brendler. Otto Torp went to USA in c. 1828 and established himself as a teacher of the Spanish guitar and singing. In 1829 he published Instruction Book for the Spanish Guitar and in 1834 his New and Improved Method for the Spanish Guitar... was issued. With the American publishers Hewitt, Riley, Klemm and Firth & Hall Torp published many songs with guitar accompaniment. See Kenneth Sparr, The Guitar in Sweden to the mid nineteenth Century (Soundboard 17/1990 No. 1 pp. 19-20.
A bit more recent are the following: Adolf Edgren, music and song teacher by whom besides a guitar method (see below) were published Gitarristen [The Guitarist], 2 issues, Favorit-Album för Guitarrspelare [Album of Favourites for Guitar Players]. Omtyckta melodier, sånger och marscher arrangerade eller komponerade för en eller två guitarre [Popular Melodies, Songs and Marches Arranged for or Composed for one or two Guitars]. Together with Joel Blomqvist (b. 1840), a religious composer, Edgren published Valda sånger ur Hemlandstoner m.fl. arrangerade för gitarr [Selected Songs from National Melodies, Arranged for Guitar]. Herman Nyberg published Tre Sånger för Pianoforte och Guitarre. Ord och musik af [Three Songs for Pianoforte and Guitar, Words and Music by] Herman Nyberg. In the Music Library of Sweden there are a large number of guitar compositions in manuscript by Wilhelm Ström. (Note 86) We would also wish to comment more fully on the question of whether the engineer Boije af Gennäs composed for the guitar, partly because he donated a large collection of guitar music to the Music Library of Sweden , and partly because his biography is missing from our musical dictionaries. Carl Oscar Boije af Gennäs was born in Hasslöv in Halland, 7th July, 1849, and died in Stockholm on the 23rd December, 1923. He attended school in Halmstad and was especially interested in mathematics and botany. He learned to play the guitar from his father, second lieutenant C. O. Boije af Gennäs. When Carl Oscar Boije af Gennäs died he willed his entire guitar library to the Royal Academy of Music, and these works were listed in the catalogue of accessions in 1924, Nos. 433-1547. Amongst the over 1,000 numbers, 126 compositions by Giuliani, 53 by Sor and 37 autographed compositions by Mertz are especially noteworthy, presumably acquired by Boije af Gennäs during his travels south. It is known that he made several journeys to the Tyrol, and Mertz widow like Boije af Gennäs, was in contact with guitarists in MunichMertz widow died poverty stricken in Vienna in 1903 (cf. Zuth, Handbuch). Furthermore, one notes in the guitar collection a large number of compositions and arrangements for guitar in manuscript by Boije af Gennäs himself, e. g. a Preghiera Seinem Freunde F. Spenzinger gewidmet von C. O. Boije af Gennäs. (Note 87) He also dedicated a composition to Otto Hammerer: "In Memoriam Otto Hammerer (printed in Freie Vereinigung). (Note 88) Other compositions or arrangements by Boije af Gennäs were printed in Gitarre-Freund, 1905-06, Freie Vereinigung 1908, and Gitarristische Vereinigung, 1909. Boije af Gennäs gave several guitars to Musikmuseet in Stockholm. Also an obituary in Svenska Dagbladet, 28th December, 1923. (Note 89)
In addition to those mentioned above, several who arranged works for the guitar can be listed: Johan Peter Cronhamn, who claims to have arranged 1,000 songs for guitar and also published Amanda. Tolv sånger, af åtskillige tonsättare med Guitarre accompagnement af [Twelve Songs by Various Composers with Guitar Accompaniment by] J. P. Cronhamn - followed by a second volumeand the flutist and clarinettist, Carl Friedrich Bock, who was born in Berlin but worked in Stockholm and who arranged for guitar Rosa Walzer af J. Strauss arrangerade för Flöjt och Guitare [Rosa Walzer by J. Strauss, Arranged for Flute and Guitar]. Bock also translated into Swedish and published the 5th edition of Carullis Guitarskola jemte öfningsstycken af [Guitar Method with Exercises by] C. F. Bock. (Note 90)
When the guitar reached a great popularity in Sweden, several song collections with guitar accompaniment appeared, generally dating from c. 1820-1840, and they are more or less the counterpart of the French journals. In the foregoing we mentioned J. P.. Cronhamns song collection Amanda, F. W. Hildebrands Journal för Guitarre, and Polymnia published by H. Neupert and A. G. Dannström. We would now list in alphabetical order the other known song collections from that time which have guitar accompaniments. (Note 91) (Note 92) Adina. Wald Samling af Lätta Tonstycken vid Guitarr [Adina. Selected Easy Songs with Guitar]; Aftonstunder vid Guitarren. Sånger med ett lätt Accompagnement [Evening Hours with the Guitar, Songs with an Easy Accompaniment]. Apollo. Sångstycken med Guitarreaccompagnement [Apollo. Songs with Guitar Accompaniment]. Bibliothek för Guitarr-spelare [Library for Guitar Players], 3 volumes 1840-41. Brage. Sånger med accompagnement af Guitarre [Brage. Songs with Accompaniment for Guitar]. Euphrosyne. Samling af Valda Sångstycken med accompagnement af Guitarre [Euphrosyne. Collection of Selected Songs with Guitar Accompaniment]. Lördags Magazin för Guitarr Spelare [Saturday Magazine for Guitar Players] Stockholm, 1839. Melpomene. Tolf Sånger med Guitarreaccompagnement [Melpomene. Twelve Songs with Guitar Accompaniment]. Necken. Weckoblad för Guitarrspelare [Necken. A Weekly Magazin for Guitar Players] Stockholm 1832, 1833. Nytt Lördags-Magazin för Guitarr-spelare [New Saturday Magazine for Guitar Players], Stockholm 1842. Orphæa. Walda Sångstycken med accompagnement för Guitarre [Orphæa. Selected Songs with Accompaniment for Guitar]. In the second volume: Samling af valda Sångstycken med accompagnement af Guitarre [Collection of Selected Songs with Accompaniment for Guitar] the editors foreword is dated Stockholm, 20 March, 1833. Penelope. Wald samling af Lätta Sångstycken vid Guitarre [Penelope. Collection of Selected Easy Songs with Guitar]. Philomèle. Vald Samling af Lätta Sångstycken vid Guitarre [Philomèle. Collection of Selected Easy Songs with Guitar].
As we have already pointed out several translations and editions of famous foreign guitar methods appeared in Sweden. We have already mentioned C. F. Bocks and J. J. Nagels editions of Carullis guitar method, of which there is an edition published by A. W. Möllers music shop in Stockholm. Mauro Giulianis Guitarrskola, Samling af Melodiska Original-öfningar i progressiv ordning [Guitar Method, Collection of Melodic Original Exercises in Progressive Order] was published by Hirsch, and Caron & Lundquist. The following comprise other guitar methods published in Sweden and listed in alphabetical order: (Note 93) Carl Augårdh, Förberedande Gitarr- och Lutaskola [Preparatory Guitar and Lute Method], is contemporary. Ferd. Bengzon, Nyaste Gitarrskolan för sjelfstudium [The Newest Guitar Method for Self Instruction] from 1891. Bengzon has also translated J. Poesinger, Lilla guitarrskolan [Little Guitar Method]. (Note 94) G. J. Charles, Ny Guitarrskola för begynnare [New Guitar Method for Beginners], Stockholm 1857. Adolf Edgren has published several methods: Lättfattlig Gitarrskola [Easy Guitar method] in which he mentions that he is the inventor of a patented guitar, the Reform Guitar, which is pictured and described. Fullständig Gitarrskola [Complete Guitar method] (12 editions). Mindre Gitarrskola [Minor Guitar Method] (5 editions). J. Müller, Guitarre-Skola [Guitar method]. Emil Nützmann, Ny Praktisk Skola för Guitarr eller Luta [New Practical Method for Guitar or Lute] is also contemporary. P. Persson, Guitarrnotation [Guitar Notation], Sundsvall 1898. J. P. Sjöberg, Guitarr Skola [Guitar method]. Sundsvall. By Sjöberg is also De första grunderna i Guitarre-spelning för Nybegynnare [The First Foundations in Guitar Playing for Beginners] Stockholm 1876. A list of Swedish printed works for the guitar is in Kenneth Sparr, Musik för gitarr utgiven i Sverige 1800-1860 (Svenskt musikhistoriskt arkiv, Bulletin 24, Stockholm 1989 pp. 20-40). On the history of the guitar in Sweden see also Kenneth Sparrs articles "The Guitar in Sweden to the mid nineteenth Century (Soundboard 17/1990 No. 1 pp. 16-23), in a Swedish version Gitarren i Sverige till 1800-talets mitt (Gitarr och Luta 24/1991 nr 1 pp. 3-11), in an Italian version La chitarra in Svezia fino alla metà del XIX secolo (il Fronimo nr 78 1992 pp. 8-17) and in a German version Die Gitarre in Schweden bis zur Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts (Gitarre & Laute 14/ 1992 Heft 2, pp. 57-64).
47. A catalogue from the English antiquarian bookseller from which both were purchased indicates for the first c. 1770 and for the second, c. 1772. The first part includes title page, music pp. 2-14; the second, title page, music pp. 2-13. Oblong 4o. Return to text
48. It is possible that our copy is not complete. Return to text
49. Concerning the above-mentioned works title, cf. Solas Instructions for the Spanish Guitar. Concerning Sola, see above. Return to text
50. Concerning foreign guitarists working in England, we would note the following: the Pragueborn Felix Horetzky is said by Bone and Zuth to have died in Russia in 1846. However, we would claim, without being able to check the veracity of our information, that in one copy of Bones work which we received from Bone himself that this notice is changed to died in Edinburgh, 1871, in his 71st year. Horetzkys student, the Pole Stanislaus Sczepanowski is also dealt with by Bone. In covering his compositions, Bone clearly basically follows the presentation in the supplement to Fétis Biographie Universelle (where the name is spelt Szczepanowski), but Bone seems to have entered one composition as two: Souvenir of Warsaw and Military Potpourri, whereas in Fétis the title is Souvenir de Varsovie, pot-pourri militaire. Return to text
51. On English lutenists in Denmark, see below. Return to text
52. Concerning John Dowland, see Hortense Panum, Dowland: Christian den 4:des Galliarde (in Aarbog for Music, Copenhagen, 1923, pp. 41-50.) Return to text
53. Angul Hammerich spells the name in his work Musiken ved Christian de fjerdes Hof Cuttings, but like Zuth, the English handbooks list Cutting. Return to text
54. Zuth writes: Kapellmeister. Return to text
55. Zuth spells the name differently in the articles, p. 143 and p. 209. Return to text
56. Earlier he had been Rathstrompeter in Lubeck. Return to text
57. Sohra is Sorø. Zuth has Sörö. Return to text
58. Concerning lutenists in Denmark, see also Angul Hammerich, Musiken ved Christian den fjerdes Hof and Carl Thrane, Fra Hofviolonernes Tid. Return to text
59. Concerning lute books in the Royal Library in Copenhagen, Zuth calls attention to the handwritten Lieder und Tänze, von diesem etliche in deutscher Lautentabulatur aufgezeichnet. This collection had been gathered by Petrus Fabricius (on p. 169 Zuth has Fabritius like the handwritten copy), and Petrus Laurenberg in Rostock (1603-05). Also Eitner whom Zuth refers to in the article on Fabricius has the spelling Laurenberg, but protests VI, p. 75 that a professor in Rostock, presumably the same as the person in question, is called Peter Lauremberg, not Laurenberg. Also in VIII, p. 433, Eitner has written Lauremberg. Cf. the spelling of Lauremberg in other cases: Eitner, VI, p. 75, and Hammerich, Dansk Muskhistorie, p. 166. Return to text
60. The last lutenist was said to be German, Christian Gottlieb Scheidler, "Hoflautenist des Kurfürsten von Mainz. Scheidler also played the guitar and died ca 1815. Return to text
61. Eggers also published Udvalgte Kompositioner [Selected Works] for guitar solo by J. K. Mertz. Return to text
62. At present interest in the guitar seems to be quite strong in Copenhagen. In the 13th April, 1931 issue of the newspaper Politiken there is a notice about another association in the Danish capital: "Guitarrens Venner [Friends of the Guitar] who, e. g. engaged the famous Austrian guitar player, Luise Walker for a concert in the music conservatorys salon. Return to text
63. All these arrangements published by Lose are in folio or quarto formats like the parallel German editions. Return to text
64. The Danish guitar and lute makers have not had just treatment by Zuth. The only ones included are the guitar makers, the brothers Gadethe one mentioned above, the father of the composer. Furthermore, Zuth states that an instrument maker, Archusen, who moved to Russia, and in St. Petersburg founded an atelier for string instruments, particularly for the guitar, was born in Copenhagen in 1795. It could also be mentioned here that Zuth refers to two lutes by famous makers, which exist in consul general Claudius collection in Copenhagen: one lute by Sixtus Rauwolf, and a theorbo by Magnus Tieffenbrucker from 1584 (repaired by Joh. Chr. Hoffmann in Leipzig in 1741). Zuth has obviously taken his information about these instruments from von Lütgendorffs work. Referring to consul general Claudius catalogue, a few details could be pointed out: Rauwolfs lute, according to von Lütgendorff, is equipped mit sechs doppelten und vier einzelnen Saiten, according to Claudius catalogue, with 10 double strings; Magnus Tieffenbruckers theorbo, according to von Lütgendorff, mit 7 doppelten und 4 einzelnen Saiten, but according to Claudius catalogue, it had 7 double and 5 single strings. Return to text
65. Of Norwegian published guitar music we are only familar with: Guitarspillerens Sang -bog. Lette Sange med Guitarakkompagnement, samlede og arrangerede af [Guitar Players Song Book. Easy Songs with Guitar Accompaniment, collected and arranged by] C. Warmuth sen. Warmuth (1811-92) was born in Germany but came to Norway in 1840. Also: Vejledning i praktisk Guitarspil [Instruction in Practical Guitar Playing], by Ole Grøndahl (1847-1923), song instructor and composer in Oslo. Generally, Norway is very slightly represented in Zuth. We have only found articles on two Norwegian singers, Astrid Jordan, who sings accompanied by the lute-guitar, and gave concerts in several cities in Germany; and Caroline Bokken Lasson who accompanied by either lute or piano sang both in Europe and America (her entry in Zuth is under Bokken; in other musical dictionaries she is found under Lasson). Vis the guitar in Norway, we would mention that in our instrument collection we have a guitar made by the instrument maker in Kristiania [Oslo], Georg Daniel Schöne. Guitars by this excellent maker are rare. In Harry Fetts catalogue, Musikinstrumenter, Kristiania, 1904, are listed a hakeharpe [hook harp], and a clavichord by Schöne, but no guitar. Schöne is not mentioned in v. Lütgendorffs work. Return to text
66. Based on Riemanns Musik Lexikon, Zuth here gives the date as 1620. Norlind, Allmänt Musiklexikon dates it to 1623. Return to text
67. Wolf, Nk. II. is given as the source for this notice. Cf. Zuths Handbuch under Geer, Lud, de: Riemann (ML) verzeichnet von ihm zu Paris eine handschriftliche Lautentabulatur aus 1639. Return to text
68. Cf. Norlind, Svensk Musikhistoria, pp. 104-5: Fem menuetter för cembalo i behåll i en handskriven klavérbok, fordom tillhörig professor Ternstedt in Uppsala (Upps. Bibl. I.M. Tab 110) och "Marche de Narva. [Five Minuettes for cembalo contained in a handwritten keyboard book, belonging to Professor Ternstedt in Uppsala (Uppsala Library I M Tab. 110), and Marche de Narva. Return to text
69. Eitner, however has 2 V. Return to text
70. This Reggio is probably identical to Pietro Francesco Reggio, basso, who was a member of the Italian opera troup in Stockholm, 1652-54 (cf. below). Return to text
71. We will return in a later article to the Swedish lute and guitar makersthe younger ones have been entirely omitted by Zuth. Fryklund says that he will return in a later article to the Swedish lute- and guitar maker, but this article was never realised. It was instead Tobias Norlind who treated this subject in his article Den svenska lutan (Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning 17/1935 pp. 5-43).Return to text
72. This lute is now in Hamburg in the Museum für Hamburgische Geschichte. Return to text
73. Already in the Middle Ages lute players in Sweden were discussed. In 1439, for example in Stockholm, one Conrad lutenista was mentioned. In Stockholm Stads Tänkeböcker for 1482, two trympare were entered, Eric and Jacob, of whom Eric had his "trympa stolen. It has been suggested that the "trympa was a designation for a Lutha [lute], and thus a trympare could have been a "lutenist"a supposition for which, however, there is no proof (see Emil Trobäck, "Stadsmusiken i Stockholm, Sv. Tidskr. för Musikf., 1929, p. 93). Return to text
74. According to Norlind ,Svensk Musikhistoria, around 1600 the lute players John Dowland, and the Italian Catone Diomedes, who was lutenist at the court of Sigismund III of Poland, and the Frenchman, Boquet, were the most famous composers of instrumental music in Sweden. Return to text
75. Albrici is not included in Zuth. Return to text
76. It is interesting to study the lute in Nils Denckers essay, "Musiknotiser i 1600-talets verser [Music Notation in 17th century Verses] (Sv. Tidskrift för Musikforskning, 1930, pp 53-73). It is stated there that the lute, as well as the violin, cymbal and regal were the instruments most often referred to in ceremonial poems during the last half of the 17th centurythe lute is mentioned in no less than 25 of these poems. The author notes that towards the end of the century the regal occurs less often than before, but the viol occurs more. Also the lute is mentioned more often at the end of the century. In Denckers essay the lute is mentioned in the first citation: Heroisk Fägne-Sång af Stiernhielm på drottning Christinas födelsedag den 8 dec. 1643 [Heroic Song, by Stiernhielm, written for Queen Christinas birthday, 8 December, 1643]; as well as in the last citation, a poem for a wedding, 31 May, 1699, held at Egby House. Of particular interest is the poem for the marriage in 1675 between Marcus Cronström and Sigrid Ekehielm, which was sent from Leipzig by Samuel Columbus, printed in Leipzig, 1676: Ueberschrift über eine Laute. It is howeber not certain that lute in all these instances really means the instrument lute. The references could be to other instruments or have had a particular poetic significanc (cf. Norlind, Allmänt Musiklexikon, p. 223, on the lute during the Gustavian period. The theorbo is mentioned in Denckers material only once; the angelica, not at all. Return to text
77. At the first concert he also accompanied Mme du Londrells singing with the lute. Return to text
78. The mandolin, its virtuoso players and composers, are also dealt with in Zuths work. However, we cannot discover any reference to the foremost Italian mandolin player, Zaneboni, who, med serdeles succes låtit höra sig vid åtskilliga Hof och nu senast inför DD. MM. och K. Hofvet på Drottningholm [with particular success performed for various Courts, most recently before their Royal Majesties and at the Royal Court at Drottningholm] and who gave several concerts in Stockholm in 1779 and 1780, where he also performed his own compositions: Soloconcert med Rondeau f. mandolin [Solo Concerto with Rondeau for Mandolin]. Later, at a concert in Stockholm, 16th December, 1781, two Italian mandolin players performed, Lovise Esio, and Carrenso (see Vretblad, Konsertlivet i Stockholm under 1700-talet). Return to text
79. Concerning the appearance of the lute in Sweden, it is important to remember that even in the beginning of the eighteenth century, lutes were made by Jonas Elg and Sven Beckman. The so-called Swedish lute appearing later, and thought to have been invented by Pehr Kraft also Ankar; certainly a violinist in the court orchestra, Johan Wilhelm Ankar, seems to have played a certain role in this—(see Envallsson: Svenskt Musikaliskt Lexikon, p. 50) developed between 1780 and 1820. A fair amount of worksnone printedfor this instrument was composed, of which Musikmuseet in Stockholm has preserved a large collection. Bellman often refers to the lute in his writing, but according to Norlind (Allmänt Musiklexikon, p. 223) the lute in Bellmans writings should actually be taken as the cittra [cithern or English guitar]- a use of the word lute which was quite usual in the Gustavian period. Norlind suggests otherwise that Bellman hardly played the Kraft-lute. Return to text
80. With reference to ealier lutenists in Sweden, we would refer to Norlind, Allmänt Musiklexikon, Svensk Musikhistoria and Trobäck, Kungl. Hovkapellets historia. In Allmänt Musiklexikon, II, p. 88, there is a survey of printed lute books in Swedish libraries, and lute manuscripts in Sweden. Amongst the printed works in the Uppsala Library we would particularly choose Intabolatura di Lauto del diuino Francesco da Milano et dell ecellente Pietro Paulo Borrono da Milano, nuovamente posta in luce et con ogni diligentia corretta, opera nuova & perfettissima sopra qualunche altra Intavolatura. Libro Secondo. Venetiis 1546. As regards this important work, of which only the Uppsala copy is known, see Mitjana: En bibliografisk visit i Uppsala Universitets Musikavdelning [A Bibliographical Visit to Uppsala Universitys Library Music Department], p. 19. Mitjana also mentions on the same page another rare work: Intabolature de lauto di lo eccellentissimo musicho Messer Antonio RottaLibro Primo, Venetiis, 1546. In the copy in Uppsala, the publishers name is not given, but Mitjana guesses Gardano, and this is more or less confirmed by Eitner: the Hofund Staatsbibliotek in Munich has two copies, the one without publishers name, the other with Gardanos name. Return to text
81. Of interest for the guitars prior history in Sweden is that Sven Beckman made a decorative guitar in 1757 which is supposed to have belonged to Queen Lovisa Ulrika and which was in Chr. Hammers collection in Stockholm Also Pehr Kraft made a guitar, dated 1800. Return to text
82. The lyre guitar neve really achieved much success in Sweden or Denmark. We know of only two lyre guitars made in Sweden, the one by Johan Jerner in Stockholm, dated 1807 (in Nordiska museet) and the other by J. Andersson in Skara from 1841 (Musikmuseet). We know of no Danish lyre guitar. Return to text
83. In Zuth there is also a mention of the guitar and lute method by A. Alberto cited above, which also appeared in a Swedish translation. Return to text
84. Neupert was a music teacher in Stockholm (cf. Höijers Musiklexikon). Return to text
85. Cf. Petter Conrad Boman, civil servant and composer, who also set Frithiofs Saga to music. Return to text
86. Presumably the same Vilh. Ström who is included in Ur Nutidens musikliv, 1924 as the composer of Romans för 4 F-horn [Romance for 4 Horns in F] (p. 66); Duett för 2 violonceller [Duet for 2 Cellos] (p. 68), and Sonat för oboe och piano [Sonata for Oboe and Piano] (p. 121). The author of the article in the above-mentioned journal has not been able to give any biographical information about Ström. Return to text
87. Franz Sprenzinger (b. 1864 in Munich, d. 1924 in Augsburg) was an enthusiastic guitar amateur, in contact with the leading guitarists of his time, and participated in the founding of Internationaler Gitarristenverband in Munich. Return to text
88. Otto Hammerer, b, 1834 in Augsburg, died according to Zuth in the same town 2 February 1905. Hammerer, who was a merchant by profession, was an excellent soloist on the guitar and left a valuable contribution to the journals for guitar in Munich and Augsburg. When both Hammerer and Sprenzinger were living in Augsburg, it is likely that Boije met them during his travels south. Return to text
89. Information on Boije af Gennäs has been most kindly given to us by the librarian, C. F. Hennerberg. Return to text
90. Without the name of the arranger, Six Romances Françaises pour la Guitarre was printed in Stockholm. Return to text
91. All appeared in Stockholm. Return to text
92. They generally have a smaller and oblong format. Return to text
93. Unless another location is mentioned, the place of printing is Stockholm. Return to text
94. Per Ferdinand Bengzon (1840-93), composer and pianist. Return to text
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